World Conference on Horticultural Research - 17-20 June 1998 in Rome, Italy
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CURRENT STATUS OF VEGETABLE RESEARCH IN INDIA

A.S.Sidhu
Punjab Agricultural University
BR> Punjab Agricultural University
Regional Research Station, Bathinda
Punjab, India


ABSTRACT

Our country has achieved self sufficiency and a good degree of stability of food production. This created an urgent need for providing health security to our population by supplying nutrition through balanced diet. Vegetables form the most important component of a balanced diet. We can grow variety of vegetables all the year round. The country is the world's second largest producer of vegetables next only to China. However our per capita consumption is quite low.

In the post partition period a good infrastructure for vegetable research has been created. At present vegetable research is being carried out at four central institutes, one National Research Centre and 26 State Agricultural Universities. The All India Coordinated Research Programme of the Project Directoreate of Vegetable Research provides facilities for multidisciplinary, area specific research on 23 vegetable crops and provides a national grid for multilocation testing of technologies developed by various institrutions. As a result research on various aspects of major vegetable crops is being undertaken in order to improve existing varieties and standardise production techniques. The investment in vegetable research is insignificant compared to cereals so is the manpower deployment.

Through intensive research ewer deployment.

Through intensive research efforts 119 improved varieties in 16 vegetable crops have been released. Of these, nine are F1 hybrids, two are synthetic cauliflower varieties and 24 varieties are resistant to different diseases and insect pests. Some of these varieties have already made significant impact/contribution in revolutionising the production of vegetables in the country. Besides developing new varieties several agro-techniques and plant protection measures against diseases and insect pests have been standardised and recommended. Systematic efforts are also on to achieve self sufficienty in seed production, though the goal is quite far. Several biotic constraints pertaining to non availability and erosion of germplasm and its evaluation, diseases and insect pests, manpower, abiotic factors such as limited availability of funds, physical environmental and soil factors and seasonal problems, socio-economic factors and limitations of infrastructure are limiting vegetable research in India. The priorities of research in years to come have been identified as breeding for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, heterosis breeding,breeding for improvement of nutritional quality and procesing, seed technology research, development of technology for growing vegetables in protected environment, use of biotechnology, insecticidal residues and off season vegetable production etc.


1. Introduction




1. Introduction

India has taken a bold step towards self sufficiency in food. However, self sufficiency in the true sense can be achieved only when each individual in the country is assured of balanced diet. Varied agro-climatic conditions in India make it possible to grow a wide variety of vegetable crops all the year round in one part of the country or another. India can claim to grow the largest number of vegetable crops compared to any other country of the world and as many as 61 annual and 4 perennial vegetable crops are commercially cultivated. Some of the important vegetable crops grown are:

Solanaceous cropsBrinjal, tomato, chillies, sweet pepper (Capsicum).
Cole CropsCabbage, cauliflower, knol khol.
Bulbous vegetableOnion, garlic
OkraOkra
CucurbitsLongmelon, muskmelon, snapmelon, watermelon, cucumber, pumpkin, summer squash, bitter gourd, bottle gourd, pointed gourd (parwal), ridge gourd, round gourd, snake grourd, sponge gourd, wax gourd (ash gourd)
RTD>
Root vegetablesCarrot, radish, turnip
Leguminous vegetablesBroad bean, cluster bean, cowpea, dolichos bean, French bean, peas
Leafy vegetablesAmaranthus, beet leaf, fenugreek, spinach
Salad vegetablesLettuce
Perennial vegetablesDrumstick, curry leaf, agathi, paii

India is the second largest producer of vegetables in the world next only to China with an estimated production of about 50.09 million tonnes from an area of 4.5 million hectares at an average yield of 11.3 tonnes per hectare. India shares about 12% of the world output of vegetables from about 2.0% of croppped area in the country. Statewise area and production of vegetable crops and area and production of different vegetable crops in india is given in Table 1 & 2 respectively. The per capita consumption in India is only about 140 gm which is far below the minimum dietry requirement of 280 g/day/person. In the independent India, systematic efforts have been made to upgrade vegetable production technology. Hoe to upgrade vegetable production technology. However, such efforts were quite inadequate due to priority given to food grain production programmes so far. Inspite of this vegetable production In India has steadily increased from about 28 m.tonnes during 1969-71 to its present level. The demand of vegetables has been increasing fast in the urban areas with an gradual rise in standard of living coupled with development of communication and transport facilities. It therefore calls fo a major research and development effort to achieve our target (83 million tonnes) for the supply of 200 gms of vegetables per capita per day to an estimated population of 1 billion by 2000 A.D. through suitable reserch programmes.


2. Research Infrastructure

2.1 Institutions/Programmes:

Research on vegetable crops in India, was initiated by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) during 1947-48 soon after independence with the sanctioning of a nucleus Plant Introduction Scheme at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi. Simultaneously, the ICAR starrted ad-hoc schemes in different states like Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Maharashtra, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. The Govt. of India also established a Vegetable Breeding Station at Katrain in Kulu Valley, Himachal Pradesh, during 1949. This station which was subsequently transferred to the Indian Agricultural Ressequently transferred to the Indian Agricultural Research Institute during 1955, has been primarily carrying out intensive research on temperate vegetables and their seed production.

Systematic research on vegetables was organised with the creation of Division of Horticulture at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, during 1956-57. However, it received a real boost with the establishment of the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research with a full fledged Division of Vegetable Crops at Bangalore in 1968. A separate Division of Vegetable Crops and Floriculture was also started at IARI, New Delhi in 1970. In 1982, the Floriculture work was separated from the Division of Vegetable Crops which was assigned research work exclusively on Vegetable Crops. Besides IARI, IIHR and their Regional Stations at Katrain, Ranchi and Godhara, the Central Institute of Horticulture for Northern Plains at Lucknow has also been given the mandate to work on Vegetaqble Crops of the region. Further, Vivekanand Parvatiya Krishi Anusandhan Shala, Almora, Central gricultural Research Instirtute, Port Blair and ICAR Research Complex for NEH Regtion Shillong are also carrying out some research work on Vegetable Crops to meet regional needs. Establishment of 26 Agricultural Universities in 17 States from 1960 onwards, gave further fillip to Vegetable Research which is being carried by their Deptts. of Horticulture and in 9 cases by separate Departments of Veand in 9 cases by separate Departments of Vegetable Crops. An All India Coordinated Vegetable Improvement Project was also started by the ICAR in 1970-71 (Fourth Plan) to provide a national grid for testing of technologies developed by various research institutes and agricultural universities through inter-disciplinary multi-location research approach. The project was started with 7 main and ten sub-centres. Three centres were added to it during the fifth, two in the sixth and two in the seventh plan. At present there are 23 centres working under this project. This project was upgraded as a Project Directorate of Vegetable Research during the VII Plan in 1987 and is undertaking multidisciplinary, multilocation research at 23 regular centres besides 42 voluntary centres. The project at present headquartered in Varanasi (U.P.).

In addition to this, a number of short term time bound and result oriented ad-hoc schems on area specific problemks of selected vegetable crops are also being supported by the ICAR at various Central Institutes and State Agricultural Universities. There is also one foreign aided project on Post-harvest technology of some Fruits and Vegetables. A project on Protected Cultivation and Green Houses has been decided to be implemented with USAID support. The deetails of Infrastructure available for vegetable research vis-a-vis other horticultural crops & field crops is given in Table 3Table 3.

By and large vegetable research has been carried out in India by Public Institutions. However, in recent years there has been an effort to start R & D activities by some private companies with foreign collaboration. Some private companies conducting research include M/s Indo-American Hybrid Seed Co. Bangalore; M/s Mahyco, Jalna, Maharashtra; Nath Seeds, Aurangabad. Maharashtra; Suttons & Sons, Calcutta, West Bengal; Bejo Sheetal Hybrid Seeds, Jalna, Maharashtra; Biogene; Bangalore, Karnataka & Unicorn Group in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh.


2.2 Investment in Research

An idea of Budget allocation to different groups of horticultural and other important food crops is given in Table 4. The amount represents allocations only to ICAR programmes and is by no way exhaustive as expenditure on vegetable research by other Institutres/Agricultural Universities has not been included. The data in the table will show that by and large investment in vegetable research is insignificant compared to cereals and is the fourth highest amongst horticultural crops next to fruit, tuber-crops and plantation crops and higher only to floriculture and spices.


2.3 Manpower

The total manpower deployed for research on different hoticultural crops is given in Table 5.

It will be given in Table 5.

It will be seen that a total of 505 persons are engaged in vegetable research of which 163 are scientists the remaining being technical, administrative and supporting staff. Against this 1076 persons with 306 scientis are employed for research on fruits, 1295 with 347 scientists for potato and other tuber crops and 9139 with a component of 2213 scientists for cereal crops during the VII Plan.


3. Research on vegetables

The major objectives of research on vegetables in India is improving production per unit area by solving chronic problems of production through breeding high yielding, disease & pest resistant varieties, developing F1 hybrids, standardisation of agro-techniques for different agro-ecological situations, disease and insect pest management and post-harvest studies with a view to reduce post-harvest losses. Twenty three vegetable namely, amaranthus, bitter kgourd, bottle gourd, brinjal, cabbaage, carrot, cauliflower, chillies, coepea, cucumbefr, Dolichos, frenchbean, garlic, Luffa, muskmelon, okra, onion, peas, pointed gourd, pumpkin, sweet pepper, tomato and watermelon have been included in the national reslearch programme on vegetable crops. The salient research achievements in vegetable research are given below.


3.1 Crop Improvement

i) New Varieties Released:

The evaluation of indigenous and exotic germplasm intP> The evaluation of indigenous and exotic germplasm introductions, and their hybridization resulted in the selection of over 30 superior varieties of different vegetables during fiftees. Of these, varieties 'Pusa Sawani' of okra, 'Pusa Ruby' and 'Pusa Early Dwarf' of tomaton, 'Pusa Purple Long' of bnrinjal and 'Booneville' of garden peas still continue to be the main vegetable varieties due to their high yield potential and consumer's preference. As a result of multi-disciplinary, multi-location testing of new research materials during the last two decades, 119 improved varieties in 16 major vegetable crops have been identified and recommended for cultivation in various agro-climatic regions of the country (Table 6). These include 20 varieties of tomato, 22 of brinjal, 13 each of onion and cauliflower, 12 of garden pea, 9 of chillies, 8 of muskmelon 4 each of water melon, pumpkin & okra, 3 frenchbean (bush type) 2 of garlic and 1 each of Dolichos bean, cabbage, carrot, cowpea and capsicum.

It is interesting to note that out of 119 varieties recommended by All India Coordinated vegetable Improvement Project, 52 varieties/hybrids have been released through Central Variety Release Committee for commercial cultivation in different zones of India. Moreover, the foundation and certified seeds of these varieties are being produced by the National Seeds Corporation Government of India. Besides, 74 varieties of differnt of India. Besides, 74 varieties of different vegetables have been released by different states and their list is given in Table 7.


ii) F1 Hybrids Developed:

In India, even though the first report of hybrid vigour in chillies came in 1933 from Indian Agricultural Research Institute, the first F1 hybrid of tomato and capsicum was available for commercial cultivation only in 1973. Since then, there has been an increasing interest in growing hybrids in vegetable crops among the Indian farmers.

Heterosis breeding in vegetable crops in India has received serious attention only in recent years. As a result the progress in developing and popularising hybrid varieties has been very slow. The first F1 hybrid of tomato (Karnataka Hybrid) and capsaicum (Bharat) were released for commercial cultivation in 1973 by a private seed company M/s Indo-American Hybrid Seeds followed by 28 other Hybrids in 9 vegetable crops. Of the 21 F1 hybrids in 11 vegetable crops developed so far by public research institutions (Table 8).

In addition to F1 hybrids, two synthetic cauliflower varieties, namely, 'Pusa Synthetic' in and 'Pusa Early Synthetic' have also been recommended for release.

The F1 hybrids developed have not been fully exploited so far due to inadequate facilities for their seed production. At present there is an urgent need to simplif production. At present there is an urgent need to simplify the technique of hybrid seed production. Various genetic mechanisms like male sterility, self-incompatibility and sgnoecious sex forms need special attention to exploit them as female presents of the hybrids. Pioneer research work has been carried out in the Division of Vegetable Crops, IARI, New Delhi and some female parents like self -incompatible lines in cauliflower and cabbage anbd gynoecious sex forms in muskmelon and cucumber have been developed and are being utilized in heterosis breeding.Very good hybrid research work has been carried out at Punjab Agricultural University on muskmelon,brinjal,tomato,chilli and onion.

In general, there is acute deartrh of good hybrid seeds in cauliflower, cabbnage, tomato and onion and taking up heterosis breeding in these crops is an immediate need.Work on hetrosis will be strengthened after the implement of NATP project.

Several private seedsmen have also been marketing hybrid vegetable varieties, either directly imported and relabelled or developed by crossing exotic parents and hybrid seeds produced indigenously. Some of these F1 hybrids are in tomato "Rupali", "Vaishali", and "Naveen" from Bangalore, "Hybrid S-15", "Hybrid S-16" and "Samirudhi" from Jalna and SG-12" and SG-9" from Calcutta; in capsicum "Bharat" from Bangalore; 'Early Bounty' and Sutquot; from Bangalore; 'Early Bounty' and Suttons Gen Gant from Calcutta; in watermelon "Madhu and Milan" from Bangalore; in cabbage "Ganesh Gole", "No. 8" and "Hirirani" from Jalna". in cucumber "Priya" from Bangalore. There are many more being offered by other seedsmen as well but their adoiption is comparatively slow.


iii) Disease and Pest Resistant Varieties

Research on breeding for disease/pest resistance has resulted in the release of twenty four varieties. 'Pusa Sawani' variety of okra developed as resistant to yellow-vein-mosaic virus is the first example of successful disease resistance breeding in vegetable crops in India. A list of resistant varieties of different crops released so far is given in Table 9.


3.2 Agrotechniques

Besides the development of a number of high yielding varieties, efforts have been made to devbelop package of practices for getting maximum economic returns. A large number of agronomical practices have also been developed to grow almost all vegetable crops under varied agro-climatic conditions. Similarly several control measures for protecting these crops from the attack of various diseases and insect pests have been found out. Under the All India Coordinated Research Project alone 34 agronomical recommendations relating to spacing, nutritional requirements, idations relating to spacing, nutritional requirements, irrigation and weed control in 11 vegetable crops, namely brinjal, cabbage, cauliflower, chillies, muskmelon, okra, onion, peas, radish, tomato, and watermelon have been made. For chemical control of major diseases and insect-pests recommendations have been made in 11 vegetable crops namely; bottle gourd, brinjal, cauliflower chillies, muskmelon, okra onion, peas, tomato, turnip and watermelon. Thus 55 measures against major diseases and insect-pests have been standardised. Recommendations have also been made for increasing yield of tomato and brinjal by application of chemical growth regulators like mixatgalol and 2,4-D respectively.

Technology has been developed and prefected for the production of vegetable seeds in general and that for temperate vegetables in the hilly region of the country in particular. Techniques for post-harvest management are also being developed.


3.3. Breeder Seed Production

Since available of superior quality seeds is the most important single input for production of vegetable crops tremendous attention is required to be paid on strengthening of research on seed production technology of these crops. Therefore, the efforts for research and production of Breeder's seed of these crops are being intensified. Accordingly, production of Breederf's Seed of vegetables has been included in the National Seeds Project during the Seventhded in the National Seeds Project during the Seventh Plant which is operating at elevel centres, namely; IARI Karnal (Haryana), IARI- Katrain (H.P.), IIHR Bangalore (Karnataka); PAU Ludhiana (Punjab), CSAUAT, Kanpur (U.P.), BCKVV Pedong (W.B.), MPKV Rahuri (M.S.), YSPUHF Solan (H.P.), JNKVV Jabalpur (M.P.), APAU Lam (A.P.), and TNAU Coimbatore (T.N.). About 100 tonnes of breeders seed is being produced annually against an average requirement of 36 tonnes which forms the basis of multiplication of superior quality foundation and certified seed. Even this limited quantity of breeder seed is not being utilised properly. The largest beneficiary of the breederf seed viz. N.S.C. is presently producing only about 650 tonnes of certified seed whereas private seed industry contributes about 2000 tonnes besides contribution of other cerftified state seed agencies amount to 500-1000 tonnes. Thus present quality of breedr seed could have fulfilled. Certified seed requirement to the extent of 30% it is doing so only to the extent of 13-15%. Recently the Govt. of India has launched a scheme on intensification of vegetable production through which funds have been put at the disposal of central institutes and the state agricultural universities to intensify production of breeders, foundation and certified seed to overcome the wide gap in seed requirement. The result of these efforts are yet to be known. The new seed policy of the Govt. of India affords enough licy of the Govt. of India affords enough opportunity of introducing new useful genes through the import of improved vegetable varieties and F1 hybrid seeds. This may pave the way for utilizing these promising genes for developing new high yielding, disease and insect-pest resistant varieties and F1 hybrids possessing tolerance to abiotic factors.


4. Impact of vegetable research and management

Development of a large number of improved varieties and wider adaptability and standardisation of their production technologies for various agro-climatic conditions has made it possible to produce vegetables in wider areas and has improved the prospects of their supply tremendously as follows.

i) Garden pea: variety 'Arkel' has revolutionised the production of early peas in all pea growing areas.
ii) Cauliflower:variety 'Pusa Early Synthetic' has adapted to warm climatic conditions of Tamil Nadu and has made it possible to grow cauliflower commercially in this non-traditional area.
iii) Watermelon:variety 'Sugar Baby' has spread fast in entire Northern and Eastern India and has benefitted both the growers with better remuneration and the consumers witth better remuneration and the consumers with superior quality. Another variety 'Arka Manik' has made a dent in the Southern and South-Western parts of the country.
iv) Okra:variety 'Pusa Sawani' bred for resistance to yellow vein mosaic virus prone areas/seasons replaced all other local varieties from cultivation all over the country.
v) Tomato:variety Pusa 'Sel-120' has made it possible to achieve high yields of quality produce in root-know nematode infested soils. With the released of cold tolerant variety 'Pusa Sheetal', we can now grow tomatoes all the year round.
vi) Radish:with appropriate choice of suitable varieties for specific seasons now we can grow radish round the years.
vii) Onion:Until 1978, Kharif onion cultivation was only grown in Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. However, identification of variety N-53 and ADR and development of technology for kharif onion has enabled to get two crops of onion annually in Northern India where it used to be only a winter/spring crop.
viii) F1 Hybrids:There has been an alroere has been an alround appreciation of growing of F1 hybrids in vegetable crops. Sizeable area of 20,000 ha. is estimated to be covered under tomato hybrids in Karnataka, Maharashtra & Southern Gujarat. Similarly the area under F1 hybrid of cabbage is estimated at about 8,000 ha.



5. Gaps and constraints

Despite a large number of varieties and hybrids developed, the productivity of vegetable crops has not improved. Varieties with longer shelf life and suitable for processing are very few. Multiple disease resistant varieties are yet to be developed. Although a lot of work on heterosis breeding in vegetable crops has been done in the country, yet there is acute dearth of real good hybrids in crops like tomato, cabbage, cauliflower, onion etc. Vegetable based cropping systems have not been developed so far, which puts these crops at a disadvantage for fitting them in crop rotations. Excessive use of pesticides has created problems of pesticide residues and hence there is a need for integrated pest and disease control.

Briefly, these gaps are identified as follows:

  1. Insufficient germplasm in different vegetable crops and the need to augment indigenous and exotic-collections.
  2. Lack of new high yielding vegetable varieties/hybrids, carrying high degree of resistance to diseases, pests, environmental stresses etc.
  3. Absence of basicts, environmental stresses etc.
  4. Absence of basic/fundamental research programmes to accelerate the work on applied aspects.
  5. Lack of competent scientific manpower to manage the research programmes.
  6. Lack of infrastructure and fund availability for research on vegetables.


6. Future research priorities

While significant progress has already been made there are still several kproblems to be tackled. For this, the following research priorities have been identified.

1) Breeding for resistance to abiotic factors viz. diseases and insect-pests such as:-

Tomatoleaf curl virus, TMV bacterial wilt,phytopthora blight, fruit borer.
Brinjalfruit and shoot borer, bacterial wilt, little leaf.
Okra yellow vein mosaic and pod borer
Chilliesvirus and pest complex
Onion purple blotch, stemphylium (moth and thrips).
Cucurbitsdowny mildew, powdery, CMV, fruit fly.
Cole cropsSclerotinia, Alternaria and soft rot.
Peas Powdery mildew
Beans Septoria, mosaic virus and b
Beans Septoria, mosaic virus and bruchus

2) Breeding for resistance to abiotic stresses eg. salinity, alkalinity, salt tolerance and stress environment e.g. hot set and cold set tomatoes.

3) Heterosis breeding in onion, tomato, cabbage, cauliflower, cucurbits, brinjal, and capsicum.

4) Breeding for nutritional and processing qualities in vegetables like tomato, onion, peas and garlic (dehydration).

5) Use of biotechnology for incorporation of resistance to disease/pests/abiotic stresses.

6) Intensification of research on seed production of temperate, tropical and sub-tropical vegetables and intensification of breeders seed production programme.

7) Export oriented research on vegetables like onion, chillies, okra, peas, tomato, brinjal, cucumber, cauliflowr and cabbage.

8) Developing efficienht cropping systems.

9) Research on growing vegetables in protected environments.

10) Research on off-season vegetable production and under exploited vegetables.

11) Studies on insecticidal residues.


REFERENCES

Attavar, M., 1988. Vegetables - Hybrid Seeds Catching up. Survey of Indian Agriculture. The Hindu pp. 147-149.

Chadha, K.L. and Ramphal, 1990. Vegetable Research in India In Proceedings of Workshop held at Islamabad, Pakistan, Sept. 24-29, 1990 pp 106-ia In Proceedings of Workshop held at Islamabad, Pakistan, Sept. 24-29, 1990 pp 106-119.

Chadha, K.L. Seshaderi, V.S., 1989. Vegetable Crops. Hybrid Seeds hold the key. The Hindu Suvey of Indian Agriculture, pp. 209-214.

Chowdhary, B., 1978. Three decades of vegetable research. Indian Horticulture 44: 38-40.


Table 1. Statewise area and production of vegetable crops (ex. Potato and tuber crops)

States Area (ha) Production (tonnes)
Andhra Pradesh 316030 1200211
Arunachal Pradesh 26300 69360
Assam 91497 205151
Bihar 368000 444500
Goa 170590
Gujarat 97000 1277700
Haryana 55400 418700
Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh 25680 249150
Jammu & Kashmir 13600 93000
Karnataka 121260 1876358
Kerala 15250 143484
Madhya Pradesh 854442 1372077
Maharashtra 309300 115700
Manipur 1450 60500
Meghaglaya 40130 111360
Mizoram 2100 6263
Nagaland 62700 42820
Orissa 566320 4200390
Punjab 99800 2146000
Rajasthan Rajasthan 41876 143381
Sikkim 3800 23000
Tamil Nadu 51295 551200
Tripura 22500 174000
Uttar Pradesh 757966 9774900
West Bengal 376000 2760914
Andaman and Nicobar 2700 16200
Chandigarh - 1970
Dadar Nagar Haveli - 13460
Delhi 3325266522
Lakhshadweep 325 368
Pandicherry 141 1128


Table 2. Area and productionH1>Table 2. Area and production of different vegetable crops in india

Crops
Area

(ha)
Production

(tonnes)
Productivity

(t/ha)
Ashgourd2497 153266.13
Beet root2164 3626016.75
Bittergourd26004 1621966.23
Bottle gourd116939 142829612.21
Brinjal299770 312448710.46
Cabbage113450 163169014.38
Capsicum4783 42230IGN="RIGHT" WIDTH=80>4783 422308.83
Carrot20124 287000714.26
Cauliflower238632 339489714.22
Chilli441050 919339l2.02
Cowpeas23012 1335875.80
Cucumber16288 1056906.48
Dolichos600 900015.00
French bean4268 247785.80
Garlic41842 2189855.23
Leaf vegetables111840 7311587311586.53
Longmelon500 750015.00
Luffa73273685224 9.35
Methi1351083600 6.19
Muskmelon28484 62541421.95
Okra3696842326616 6.28
Onion280915 318106711.32
Other beans168645 3494902.52
Other cole crops16007 19542412.20
Other gourds109846 65923914.32
14.32
Peas1469912105686 12.35
Pumpkin43137 53277911.91
Radish67345 80252912.77
Ridge gourd10040 12831015.85
Tomato290279 460344615.85
Watermelon16194 20588412.71


Table 3: Existing facilities of research on vegetable crops

Field Crops
Institute
Project
AICRP
SAU
& NRC
Directorate
OLSPAN=2 WIDTH=190>
Directorate
Cereal Crops
7
3
8
26
Commercial crops
5
-
5
26
Oilseeds
5
1
7
26
Horticultural Crops
Fruits
6
-
3
26
Vegetables
4
1
-
26
Potato & tuber Crops
2
1
-
26
Floriculture & Medicinal Plants
3
ENTER>3
-
2
16
Plantation Crops and Cashew
3
-
2
11


Table 4: Budget for research on vegetables vis-a-vis other crops (Rs. in Millions)

Crops
Expenditure
in VII Plan
Allocation
for VIII Plan
Cereal Crops1457.31 3311.68
Commercial Crops497.42 1040.72
Oilseeds154.16 511.79
Total2108.89 4864.19
Horticulture Crops
Fruits
Fruits168.74 594.20
Vegetables78.03 269.81
Potato & Tuber Crops201.33 499.69
Floriculture & Medicinal Plants29.30 127.77
Plantation Crops196.27 549.59
Spices39.25 138.40
Post-harvest Technology
(Fruits & Vegetables)
43.0669.80
Total Horticulture755.98 2249.26


Table 5: Existing manpower for research on vegetable crops vis-a-vis other crops.

Field Crop
Total
Scientific
Food Crops
Cerea
Cereal Crops9139 2213
Commercial Crops2919 688
Oilseeds1122 419
Total13180 3322
Horticulture Crops
Fruits1076 306
Vegetables505 163
Potato & Tuber Crops1295 347
Floriculture & Medicinal Plants173 88
Plantation Crops1201 232
Post-harvest Technology
(Fruits & Vegetables)
21221271
Total4462 1207


Table 6: List of varieties released at national level

Crop             Varieties released through  Others
                 Central Variety Release 
                 Committee.

A.SOLANACEOUS CROPS     
1.   Brinjal:
    a) Long      Pusa Anupma, Pant Samart,   ARU-IC, ARU-2C,
                 PH-4, Pusa Kranti, Pusa     Azad Kranti, H-7,
                 purple cluster,Punjab       K-202-9,NDB-25,Pusa
                 Barasti                     purple long

    b) Round     Jamuni Gole Baingan,        Arka Navneet,BB-7
                 Pant Rituraj                BWR-12,H-8, Pusa
                                             Hybrid-6, T-3.

    c) Small     Aruna                       - 
       Round

    d) Green     -                           Arka Kusumkar                                  

2. Peppers

    a) Capsicum  -                           Kt-I

    b) Chillies  Andhra Jyoti, J-218, K-2,   Bhagyalakshmi,
                 Musalwadi,Pusa Jwala,       LDC-206, sel-I
                 X-235

3.  Tomato

    a) Determi-  HS-101, Pusa Earli Dwarf    BT-1,CO3, KS-2, La-
       nate      Pusa Gaurav, S-12           Bonita, Punjab 
                           ate      Pusa Gaurav, S-12           Bonita, Punjab 

                                             Chhauhhara,
                                             Punjab Kesri, Sel-7.
    b) Indete-   Arka Vikas, Pant Bahar      Arka Saurabh,  
       minate    Pant T-3                    Pusa Ruby, Sel-120
                                             Sioux, Pant T-2.

B.COLE CROPS                                                  

1.  Cabbage      Pusa Mukta                  --

2.  Cauliflower                              --
    a) Early     Early Kunwari,              Pusa Early Synthetic
                 Pusa Deepali,               235-S.

    b) Mid -     Pusa Synthetic,             Improved Japanese,
       season    Pant Shubhara               Pusa Shubara.
    c) Late      Pusa Snowball-1,            Snowball-16 
                 Pusa Snowball-2 
                 Pusa Snowball-K-1.

C.LUGUMINOUS CROPS
1.  Cowpea       -                           Pusa Komal
2.  Dolichos     -                           Deepaliwal
3.  French Bean  VL-Boni, Arka Komal          -
                 Pant Anupma.
4.  Pea
    a) Early     Arkel                       Jawahar Matar-4, 
                                             Early December,PM-2, 
                                             Mattar Agata-6,JP-4
    b) Mid-      Jawahar Matar-I             Bonneville, Lincoln,
       season    VL-3                        P-88, PRS-4, Pant Uphar.

D.CUCURBITACEOUS CROPS
1.  Mu     P-88, PRS-4, Pant Uphar.



D.CUCURBITACEOUS CROPS

1.  Muskmelon    Hara madhu, Punjab Hybrid.  Arka Jeet, Arka Rajhans,
                 Pusa Sharbati,Punjab        Durgapura Madhu,Hybrid
                 sunheri                     M-3, Pusa Madhuras.
2.  Pumpkin      Arka Chandan, Ambali,       Arka Suryamukhi
                 Pusa Vishwas

3.  Watermelon   Arka Manik, Sugar Baby      Arka Jyoti, Durgapoura
                                             Meetha.

E.BULB CROPS
1.  Garlic       Jamuna Safed,               -
                 Agri-Found White
2.  Onion
    a) Red       Agrifound Dark Red,         Arka Kalyan,
                 Arka Niketan,               N-2-4-1, N-257-9-1
                 Pusa Madhvi                 Punjab Selection,
                 Punjab Red Round,           Pusa Ratnar,
                 Punjab  Naroya              Pusa  Red, 
                                             VL-3,ALR.
    b) White     -                           Pusa White Flat,
                                             Pusa White Round
                                             PB-48.

F. ROOT
Carrot           Pusa Yamdagni               --

G.OTHER CROPS    
Orka             --                          P-7, Parbhani
                                             Kranti, Sel-2,
                                             Sel-10 (IIHR)

Table 7. List of vegetable varieties released by state va7">Table 7. List of vegetable varieties released by state variety release committee.

CropsVariety
Solanaceous Crops
a) BrinjalAnnamalai, Azad B-1, Co-1, Gujarat Brinjal-6, Junagadh Oblong, Kalianpur Type 3, MDU-1. Punjab Neelam,Sada Bahar Bangan,Punjab Moti,BH-1,BH-2
b) TomatoAzad T-2, Kalianpur Angoorlata, Kalianpur-1, NTDR-1, PKM-1, Punjab Tropic,PNR-7,TH2312, TH802
c) ChilliesChanchal, Co-1, CO-2, DH-76-6, Gujarat Chillies, K-1, MDH-1, Pant C-1, Sindhur, CH-1,Punjab Gushedar,Punjab surkh,Punjab lal
Bulb Crops
OnionCO-4, MDU-1, VL-Piaze-67, CO-1, CO-3, Kalianpur Red Round, Punjab white.
Root Crops
RadishCO-1, Kalianpur No.1, Punjab Safed. Co-1, Punjab pasand.
Leafy Vegetables.ables.
MethiCo-1
Leguminous Crops
a) CowpeaBirsa Sweta
b) French BeanBisra Priya (Pole), Watex (Bush)
c) Dolichos BeanCo-8 (bush), Co-9 (bush), CO-10 (bush), Kalianpur T-2 (Pole), Rajni (Pole).
d) Cluster beanDurga bahar
e) Garden peasAzad P-1, Hara Bona, JM-2, JM-3, JM-5 Madhu, Punjab-87,Mithi fali.
Cucurbitaceous Crops
a) AshgourdCO-2
b) Bitter gourdKalianpura Baramasi, MDH-1, & Piriya, CO-1. BG-14,C96.
c) Bottle gourdCo-1, Kalianpur Long Green
d) CucumberKalianpur Green
e) MuskmelonGujarat Muskmelon-1, Gujarat Muskmelon-2,
f) Ridge goudCO-1, CO-2, PKM-1, Punjab Sadabahar.
g) Summer SquashPunjab Chappan Kaddu-1.
h) SnakegourdPKM-1, CO-1.
i) Sponge gourdKalianpura Hari Chikni
j) TindaS-48.
k) WatermelonDurgapura Kesar.


Table 8. Synthetics and F1 Hybrids identified/released after assessment under AICVIP/PDVR

CropHybrid SourceYear
Yield in MT.
RealisedPotential
EggplantArka Navneet IIHR1981
30
1981
30
58
Pusa Hybrid-6IARI 1990
40
61
Pusa Hybrid-5IARI 1992
50
90
ARBH-201ANKUR 1993
78
126
NDBH-1Faizabad 1993
59
93
ABH-1Anand 1993
53
76
MHB-10JALNA 1993
60
137
MHB-39JALNA 1993
52
116
CapsicumKT-1IARI 1990
24
<=53>1990
24
50
TomatoFMH-2IIHR 1993
51
78
Pusa Hyb.2IARI 1993
55
65
MTH-6MAHYCO 1992
48
70
ARTH-4ANKUR 1992
49
66
ARTH-3ANKUR 1992
51
82
CarrotHyb-1MAHYCO 1992
21
24
CauliflowerPusa Syn. IARI1981
19
24
Pusa Early synthetic IARI1990IARI1990
10
12
Pusa hybrid-2IARI 1992
23
35
CabbageNath-401Aurangabad 1993
52
71
Pusa syn.IARI 1992
33
50
Sri ganesh golMAHYCO 1992
39
64
MuskmelonPb.HybridPAU 1985
10
29
Pusa RasrajIARI 1990
17
30
WatermelonArka jyoti IIHR1981
10
48
Bottle-gourdPusa meDTH=121>Bottle-gourdPusa meghdut IARI1971
19
26
Pusa ManjariIARI 1971
16
25
Summer squashPusa Alankar IARI1972
45
54
CucumberPusa sanyog IARI1973
45
50


Table 9. Vegetable varieties resistant to diseases and insect pests.

CropVariety Disease/Insect PestSource
BrinjalBWR-12 Bacterial Wilt
(Pseudomonas solanacearum)
IIHR-Bangalore
Pant Rituraj -do-Pangnagar
Pant Samrat Bacterial Wilt (P.solanaoearum)
Phomopsis Blight (Phomopsi8s vexans)
Shoot & Fruit
Borer & Jassids.
Pantnagar
Pusa Purple Cluster Bacterial Wilt (P.solanacearum) IARI,New Delhi
BB-7 -do-Bhubaneswar
Pusa Bhairav Phomopsis Blight (P.vexans)\-do-
CabbageSEL-8 Black Rot (Xanthomonas campestris) IARI-Katrain
CauliflowerPusa Shubra Black RotIARI-New Delhi
Pusa Snowball K-1 Black RotIARI-Katrain
ChilliPusa Jawala>ChilliPusa Jawala Leaf Curl (CMV & PVY)IARI-New Delhi
Pb. lal -do-PAU,Ludhiana
CowpeaPusa komal Bacterial Blight
(Xanthomonas vignicola).
IARI-New Delhi
MuskmelonArka Rajhans Powery Mildew
(Sphaerothica fubginea)
IIHR-Bangalore
Pb. Rasila -do-PAU,Ludhiana
OkraSel-10 Y.V.M.VirusIIHR-Bangalore
Sel-2 Y.V.M.VirusNBPGR-New Delhi
P-7,P-8 Y.V.M.VirusPAU-Ludhiana
Parbhani Kranti Y.V.M.VirusMAU-Parbhani
PeaPRS-4 Powdery MildewPantnagar
PM-2 Powdery MildewPantnagar
JP-4 Powdery Mildew
& Rust (Uromycess pisi)
Pantnagar
TomatoBT-1 Bacterial WiltBhubaneswar
Pant Bahar Varticilium Wilt (Verticicum sps) & Fusarium Wilt (Fusarium oxysporum). Pantnagar
SEL-120 Root Knot Nematode
M.incognita M.arneria & M.javanica
IARI-New Delhi
PNR-7 PNR-7 -do-PAU,Ludhiana


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