World Conference on Horticultural Research - 17-20 June 1998 in Rome, Italy
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PRELIMINARY REPORT ON CURRENT STATE OF TROPICAL FRUIT CROPS IN BRAZIL

TROPICAL FRUIT CROPS IN BRAZIL Aristoteles Pires de Matos
EMBRAPA/CNPMF
CP 007, 44380-000
Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brazil
Phone - (55 75) 721 2120
Fax - (55 75) 721 1118
Email - apmatos@cnpmf.embrapa.br
 

1. INTRODUCTION

The National Research Center for Cassava and Tropical Fruit Crops (CNPMF) is the center of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (EMBRAPA) responsible for conducting and coordinating research and development activities on cassava and tropical fruit crops all over Brazil. CNPMF is located in the municipality of Cruz das Almas, State of Bahia. General objectives are: 1) to generate technologies, processes, knowledge and competitive products for the production sectors of cassava and tropical fruit crops; 2) to increase production, yield and quality of the current production systems of cassava and tropical fruit crops; 3) to minimize negative impacts of the production systems of cassava and tropical fruit crops on the environment and human health; and 4) to contribute for the stabilization of the offer of quality cassava and tropical fruits. Specific objectives are to develop and to promote technologies and knowledge which make more efficient cassava and tropical fruit crops on the national level, and of citrus I the North and Northeast regions of Brazil, with emphasis on the sustainable use of natural resources for the benefit of society. B natural resources for the benefit of society. Besides CNPMF, other EMBRAPA's research centers also conduct activities on tropical fruit crops; they are: CPAA, CAPAC, CPAF/AC, CPAF/RR, CPATSA, CPATU, and CNPAT. State research institutions such as EMCAPA, EMDAGRO, EBDA, IPA, EPACE, EMEPA, and IAPAR, also conduct some research activities related to tropical fruit crops. The UFBA, UFCE, ESALQ/USP and UnB are also partners on the research agenda of tropical fruit crops in Brazil.

Overall tropical fruit crops priorities are as follows: citrus, banana, pineapple, papaya, mango, passion fruit and Barbados cherry (under CNPMF's responsibility), cashew fruit (under CNPAT's responsibility), guava (CPATSA's responsibility), avocado, and "cupuaçu" (CPATU's responsibility). Research priorities regarding to tropical fruit crops are the following: obtaining new cutivars and root stocks; production of quality planting material; crop rotation; soil management and conservation; spacing; trimming; integrated pest (including pests and diseases) management; nutrition and fertilization; irrigation; growth regulators; postharvest processing.

Expected results are: to increase technology offer for the improvement of production systems of tropical fruit crops; to recommend high yield improved cultivars, resistant to diseases and pests and adapted to the environment; to reduce production costs; to promote scientific exchange; to improve the technology tific exchange; to improve the technology level.

Some technologies already produced are: 1. Increase in the efficiency of floral induction of pineapple; 2. Introduction of the 'Perolera'and ''Primavera' pineapple cultivars, resistant to Fusarium disease; 3. Recommendation of cultivars of banana 'Prata Anã', 'Mysore' and 'Pacovan', and creation of the banana hybrids PV 03-76 and JV 03-15, resistant to black Sigatoka; 4. Introduction of the superior banana hybrids PA 12-03 and PV 03-44; 5. Production of the acid lime 'Tahiti' in the off season; 6. Use of weak virus strain of tristeza to preimmunize citrus plants to reduce infection by citrus tristeza virus; 7. Monitoring and control of the mango fruit fly
 
 
 

2. GENETIC RESOURCES

2.1. Germplasm bank
2.1.1. Collection and preservation of cashew fruit and other Anacardium species
2.1.2. Characterization and evaluation of cashew accessions and other Anacardium species
2.1.3. Active germplasm bank of pineapple
2.1.4. Active germplasm bank of Barbados cherry
2.1.5. Active germplasm bank of banana
2.1.6. Active germplasm bank of citrus
2.1.7. Active germplasm bank of papaya
2.1.8. Active germplasm bank of passion fruit
2.1.9. Active germplasm bank of fruit crops of the Amazon Region
 

3. PLANT IMPROVEMENT

3.1. Breeding

3. PLANT IMPROVEMENT

3.1. Breeding
3.1.1. Generation and selection of scion and root stock citrus varieties
3.1.2. Evaluation of citrus cultivars under tropical ecosystems in North and Northeast Brazil
3.1.3. Introduction and evaluation of scion and root stocks of citrus in the State of Amazonas
3.1.4. Evaluation of citrus cultivars in low land areas of the State of Para
3.1.5. Introduction and evaluation of citrus cultivars in the municipality of Rio Branco, State of Acre
3.1.6. Generation and selection of pineapple varieties resistant to fusariose, caused by Fusarium subglutinans
3.1.7. Evaluation of pineapple cultivars for the State of Amazonas
3.1.8. Generation, evaluation and selection of banana varieties
3.1.9. Agronomic evaluation of banana cultivars for the State of Amazonas
3.1.10. Introduction and evaluation of promising banana hybrids and cultivars in the State of Roraima
3.1.11. Introduction of banana cultivars in the municipality of Rio Branco, State of Acre
3.1.12.Generation and selection of papaya varieties for five tropical ecosystems
3.1.13. Mango improvement for the "cerrados" in Brazil
3.1.14. Selection of genotypes and improvement of production systems of Barbados cherry in tropical and sub-tropical ecosystems in Brazil
3.1.15. Development of genotypes and improvement of the guava crop management in irrigated areas of the São Francement in irrigated areas of the São Francisco River growing area
3.1.16. Improvement of the cashew crop for the "Cerrados" conditions
3.1.17. Selection of cashew genotypes for production systems in the coastal region of Northeastern Brazil
3.1.18. Estimation of genetic parameters of characteristics associated to yield and quality of cashew fruit and nut
3.1.19. Introduction and evaluation of clones of cashew in the humid tropics, State of Para
3.1.20. Identification and collection of cashew genotypes for the humid tropic in Northeastern Brazil
3.1.21. Selection of cashew genotypes, for scion and root stocks, adapted to semi arid conditions
3.1.22. Collection and evaluation of indigenous and exotic fruit crops in the State of Acre
3.1.23. Alternative intercroping systems for fruit crops in the "cerrados", State of Roraima
 
 

3.2. Biotechnology
3.2.1. Micropropagation of cashew plants
3.2.2. Establishment of tissue culture techniques for mass micropropagation of superior genotypes of pineapple, banana and papaya
3.2.3. Transformation, regeneration and selection of transgenic papaya plants resistant to the papaya ring spot virus
3.2.4. Establishment of methodologies and production of somatic hybrids of citrus root stocks through protoplast fusion
3.2.5. Biological and molecular characterization of virus, viroids and related pathogens to be usization of virus, viroids and related pathogens to be used in cross protection activities in citrus
3.2.6. Production of citrus vegetative material free of viruses and bacteria
3.2.7. Selection of arbuscular micorrhizal fungi for mycorrhization of planting material of Barbados cherry, mango and grape in the growing area of the São Francisco River
 

4. PESTS-DISEASES AND DISORDERS

4.1. Survey, identification, bioecology and management of pest associated to Barbados cherry in Northeastern Brazil
4.2. Evaluation of pineapple genotypes for resistance to mealybug wilt, associated to Dysmicoccus brevipes
4.3. Evaluation of damage and of behavior of pineapple genotypes to nematodes
4.4. Phytossanitary survey of the pineapple crop under irrigated conditions
4.5. Mycorrhizal fungi and organic matter in the control of Fusarium wilt and nematodes on the banana crop
4.6. Evaluation of diploids of Musa for resistance to the Moko disease
4.7. Biological control of Cosmopolites sordidus by using the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana in the "Reconcavo" and South of the State of Bahia
4.8. Integrated management of citrus Orthezia
4.9. Resistance of papaya cultivars and utilization of Mycorrhizal fungi on the control of Phytophthora palmivora
4.10. Etiological characterization of the causal agent of the "meleira" disease of the papaya crusal agent of the "meleira" disease of the papaya crop
4.11. Alternative postharvest control measures for mango and papaya fruit flies
4.12. Identification of factors related to precocious death of passion fruit
4.13. Survey for identification of the causal agent of the precocious death of passion fruit plants, in the São Francisco River growing area, with emphasis on soil borne pathogens
4.14. Biology, damage level and control of the most important pest of the cashew crop
4.15. Identification of sources of resistance, biochemical characterization and control of cashew crop pathogens
4.16. Etiology and epidemiology of the most serious cashew disease in the humid tropics
4.17. Integrated disease management of cashew fruit in semi arid region
4.18. Identification, pathogenicity and control of pathogens associated to fruit crops that show industrial importance
4.19. Integrated disease management of fruit crops
4.20. Technological alternatives for disease management in fruit crops
 
 
 

5.INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

5.1. Cultural techniques
5.1.1. Behavior of clones and progenies of normal and dwarf cashew plants under several levels of irrigation
5.1.2. Effect of irrigation intensity and levels of fertilizers on the development, production and water necessity of dwarf cashew plants
5.1.3. Effect of water quality onof dwarf cashew plants
5.1.3. Effect of water quality on the development of tropical fruit crops (cashew, Barbados cherry, and "graviola"
5.1.4. Effect of levels of nitrogen and potassium on yield of dwarf cashew plants with and without irrigation
5.1.5. Studies on the development of the root system of grafted dwarf cashew plants under field and nursery conditions with and without irrigation
5.1.6. Uses and management of soils cultivated with cashew in the "cerrados" in the State of Piaui
5.1.7. Conduction and trimming of grafted normal and dwarf cashew plants under high density planting system
5.1.8. Studies on high density planting system for dwarf precocious cashew plants under non irrigated conditions
5.1.9. Studies on nutrition and mineral fertilization of the cashew crop in the coastal region of Northeastern Brazil
5.1.10. Improvement of methods of vegetative propagation and management of planting material of cashew, mango, guava and "sapoti"
5.1.11. Efficient utilization of macro and micro nutrients by citrus plants
5.1.12. Cultural practices x soil properties on citrus yield
5.1.13. Soil management on the integrated weed control in citrus orchard
5.1.14. Intercrops in citrus orchard under irrigated conditions in semi arid regions
5.1.15. Mineral nutrition and fertilization of citrus in the State of Para
5.1.16. Diffusion and technology transfer through training on citrus and tropicaltransfer through training on citrus and tropical fruit crops
5.1.17. Irrigation x fertilization in the pineapple crop
5.1.18. Growing pineapple in high density planting system
5.1.19. Management of natural flowering of pineapple plants with growth regulators
5.1.20. Effects of growth regulators, fertilization and postharvest phytossanitary treatment on development and quality of pineapple planting material
5.1.21. Studies on the production chain of pineapple, banana, citrus and cassava
5.1.22. Prospection of technological demand for the production chain of the pineapple crop in Northeastern Brazil
5.1.23. Cultural practices management on the banana crop
5.1.24. Optimization of use of nitrogen in the banana crop
5.1.25. Agronomic evaluation of papaya genotypes under several ecosystems
5.1.26. Behavior of the papaya crop under several levels of fertilizers
5.1.27. Tolerance of the papaya crop to irrigation with water containing high salt content
5.1.28. Papaya arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi: ecology, dependency and selection of fungi for inoculation
5.1.29. Selection of genotypes and improvement of the production system of Barbados cherry in the State of Bahia
5.1.30. Nutrition and fertilization of Barbados cherry
5.1.31. Production and distribution of mango basic material
5.1.32. Use of growth retardant and flowering inductor in mango crop in semi arid regions
5.1.33. in mango crop in semi arid regions
5.1.33. Nutritional evaluation of mango and grape in the Açu Valley, São Francisco River
5.1.34. Nutritional requirements of the mango crop, under irrigated conditions, in the São Francisco River growing region
5.1.35. Adjustment of the guava and papaya intercropping system
5.1.36. Farmer participatory research, with tropical fruit crops, in three ecosystems in Northeastern Brazil
5.1.37. Diffusion of agrindustrial technologies of tropical fruits
 

6. POST-HARVEST - PROCESSING

6.1. Evaluation of postharvest ripening characteristics of papaya and banana genotypes
6.2. Calcium infiltration for postharvest conservation of guava fruits
6.3. Processing technology for cashew juice
6.4. Postharvest management for "in natura" conservation of cashew fruit
6.5. Pre and postharvest use of calcium for "in natura" conservation of cashew fruit and Barbados cherry
6.6. Technology of agrindustrial products of Barbados cherry
 
 
 

7. HUMAN RESOURCES (CNPMF only)

SPECIALITY  NUMBER OF RESEARCHERS
Biotechnology 4
Marketing 4
Marketing 3
Economic studies 2
Pest management (pests and disease) 13
Genetic/improvement 8
Postharvest 2
Cultural practices 7
Production of planting material 2
Integrated production system 3
TOTAL 44
 

8. LIST OF ACRONYMS

EMBRAPA - Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation
CPAA - Center for Agroforestry Research of Western "Amazonia'
CPAC - Center for Agricultural Research on the "Cerrados"
CPAF/AC - Center for Agroforestry Research of Acre
CPAF/RR - Center for Agroforestry Research of Roraima
CPATSA - Center for Agricultural Research of the Semi Arid Tropics
CPATU - Center for Agroforestry Research of Eastern "Amazonia"
CNPAT - National Center for Research on Tropical Agroindustry
CNPMF - National Research Center for Cassava and Tropical Fruit Crops
EBDA - Agricultural Development Corporation of
CNPMF - National Research Center for Cassava and Tropical Fruit Crops
EBDA - Agricultural Development Corporation of State of Bahia
EMCAPA - Agricultural Research Corporation of State of Espirito Santo
EMDAGRO - Agricultural and Development Corporation of State of Sergipe
EMEPA - Agricultural Research Corporation of State of Paraiba
EPACE - Agricultural Research Corporation of State of Ceara
IAPAR - Agronomic Institute of State of Parana
IPA - Agricultural Research Corporation of State of Pernambuco
ESALQ/USP - Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture/University of São Paulo
EAUFBA - College of Agriculture of the Federal University of Bahia
UFCE - Federal University of Ceara
UnB - University of Brasilia
 
 
 

9. REFERENCES

PROGRAMA NACIONAL DE PESQUISA E DESENVOLVIMENTO DA AGROPECUÁRIA. EMBRAPA, Ministério da Agricultura e do Abastecimento. Pronapa, Brasília, v. 23, p. 1-267, 1997.

EMBRAPA. Brasilia, p. 1-52,1995 


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