Escape Sequences (also known as Character Entities)

Character entities have two functions:

  1. escaping special characters
  2. displaying other characters not available in the plain ASCII character set (primarily characters with diacritical marks)

Three ASCII characters--the left angle bracket (<), the right angle bracket (>), and the ampersand (&)--have special meanings in HTML and therefore cannot be used "as is" in text.

  1. The angle brackets are used to indicate the beginning and end of HTML tags.
  2. The ampersand is used to indicate the beginning of an escape sequence.
  3. Double quote marks may be used as-is but a character entity may also be used (&quot;).

To use one of the three characters in an HTML document, you must enter its escape sequence instead:

  1. &lt; is the escape sequence for <
  2. &gt; is the escape sequence for >
  3. &amp; is the escape sequence for &

Additional common escape sequences support characters, such as:

  1. &ouml; is the escape sequence for a lowercase o with an umlaut: ö
  2. &ntilde; is the escape sequence for a lowercase n with an tilde: ñ
  3. &Egrave; is the escape sequence for an uppercase E with a grave accent: È
  4. &reg; is the escape sequence for a Registered Trademark: ®
  5. &copy; is the escape sequence for a Copyright: ©
  6. &133; is the escape sequence for an Ellipsis: …
  7. &153; is the escape sequence for a Trademark: ™
  8.  Non-breaking space

NOTE: Unlike the rest of HTML, the escape sequences are case sensitive. You cannot, for instance, use &LT; instead of &lt;.

The HTML Coded Character Set

This list details the code positions and characters of the HTML document character set, specified in section SGML Declaration for HTML. This coded character set is based on [ISO-8859-1].
Escape Sequences
Displays
ASCII
Character Entity
As
Character's Description
&#00;-&#08
Unused
&#09;
Horizontal tab
&#10;
Line feed
&#11;-&#12
Unused
&#13;
Carriage Return
&#14;-&#31
Unused
&#32;
Space
&#33;
!
Exclamation mark
&#34;
&quot;
"
Quotation mark
&#35;
#
Number sign
&#36;
$
Dollar sign
&#37;
%
Percent sign
&#38;
&amp;
&
Ampersand
&#39;
'
Apostrophe
&#40;
(
Left parenthesis
&#41;
)
Right parenthesis
&#42;
*
Asterisk
&#43;
+
Plus sign
&#44;
,
Comma
&#45;
-
Hyphen
&#46;
.
Period (fullstop)
&#47;
/
Solidus (slash)
&#48;-&#57;
0-9
Digits 0-9
&#58;
:
Colon
&#59;
;
Semi-colon
&#60;
&lt;
<
Less than
&#61;
=
Equals sign
&#62;
&gt;
>
Greater than
&#63;
?
Question mark
&#64;
@
Commercial at (a.k.a. At Sign)
&#65;-&#90
A-Z
Letters A-Z
&#91;
[
Left square bracket
&#92;
\
Reverse solidus (backslash)
&#93;
]
Right square bracket
&#94;
^
Caret
&#95;
_
Horizontal bar (underscore)
&#96;
`
Acute accent
&#97;-&#122
a-k
Letters a-z
&#123;
{
Left curly brace
&#124;
|
Vertical bar
&#125;
}
Right curly brace
&#126;
~
Tilde
&#127;-&#132
Unused
&#133;
Elipsis
&#134;-&#152
Unused
&#153;
Trademark
&#154;-&#159
Unused
&#160;
&nbsp;
Non-breaking Space
&#161;
&iexcl;
¡
Inverted exclamation
&#162;
&cent;
¢
Cent sign
&#163;
&pound;
£
Pound sterling
&#164;
&curren;
¤
General currency sign
&#165;
&yen;
¥
Yen sign
&#166;
&brvbar;
¦
Broken vertical bar
&#167;
&sect;
§
Section sign
&#168;
&uml; &die;
¨
Umlaut (dieresis)
&#169;
&copy;
©
Copyright
&#170;
&ordf;
ª
Feminine ordinal
&#171;
&laquo;
«
Left angle quote, guillemotleft
&#172;
&not;
¬
Not sign
&#173;
&shy;
­
Soft hyphen
&#174;
&reg;
®
Registered trademark
&#175;
&macr; &hibar;
¯
Macron accent
&#176;
&deg;
°
Degree sign
&#177;
&plusmn;
±
Plus or minus
&#178;
&sup2;
²
Superscript two
&#179;
&sup3;
³
Superscript three
&#180;
&acute;
´
Acute accent
&#181;
&micro;
µ
Micro sign
&#182;
&para;
Paragraph sign
&#183;
&middot;
·
Middle dot
&#184;
&cedil;
¸
Cedilla
&#185;
&sup1;
¹
Superscript one
&#186;
&ordm;
º
Masculine ordinal
&#187;
&raquo;
»
Right angle quote, guillemotright
&#188;
&frac14;
¼
Fraction one-fourth
&#189;
&frac12;
½
Fraction one-half
&#190;
&frac34;
¾
Fraction three-fourths
&#191;
&iquest;
¿
Inverted question mark
&#192;
&Agrave;
À
Capital A, grave accent
&#193;
&Aacute;
Á
Capital A, acute accent
&#194;
&Acirc;
Â
Capital A, circumflex accent
&#195;
&Atilde;
Ã
Capital A, tilde
&#196;
&Auml;
Ä
Capital A, dieresis or umlaut mark
&#197;
&Aring;
Å
Capital A, ring
&#198;
&AElig;
Æ
Capital AE dipthong (ligature)
&#199;
&Ccedil;
Ç
Capital C, cedilla
&#200;
&Egrave;
È
Capital E, grave accent
&#201;
&Eacute;
É
Capital E, acute accent
&#202;
&Ecirc;
Ê
Capital E, circumflex accent
&#203;
&Euml;
Ë
Capital E, dieresis or umlaut mark
&#204;
&Igrave;
Ì
Capital I, grave accent
&#205;
&Iacute;
Í
Capital I, acute accent
&#206;
&Icirc;
Î
Capital I, circumflex accent
&#207;
&Iuml;
Ï
Capital I, dieresis or umlaut mark
&#208;
&ETH; &Dstrok;
Ð
Capital Eth, Icelandic
&#209;
&Ntilde;
Ñ
Capital N, tilde
&#210;
&Ograve;
Ò
Capital O, grave accent
&#211;
&Oacute;
Ó
Capital O, acute accent
&#212;
&Ocirc;
Ô
Capital O, circumflex accent
&#213;
&Otilde;
Õ
Capital O, tilde
&#214;
&Ouml;
Ö
Capital O, dieresis or umlaut mark
&#215;
&times;
×
Multiply sign
&#216;
&Oslash;
Ø
Capital O, slash
&#217;
&Ugrave;
Ù
Capital U, grave accent
&#218;
&Uacute;
Ú
Capital U, acute accent
&#219;
&Ucirc;
Û
Capital U, circumflex accent
&#220;
&Uuml;
Ü
Capital U, dieresis or umlaut mark
&#221;
&Yacute;
Ý
Capital Y, acute accent
&#222;
&THORN;
Þ
Capital THORN, Icelandic
&#223;
&szlig;
ß
Small sharp s, German (sz ligature)
&#224;
&agrave;
à
Small a, grave accent
&#225;
&aacute;
á
Small a, acute accent
&#226;
&acirc;
â
Small a, circumflex accent
&#227;
&atilde;
ã
Small a, tilde
&#228;
&auml;
ä
Small a, dieresis or umlaut mark
&#229;
&aring;
å
Small a, ring
&#230;
&aelig;
æ
Small ae dipthong (ligature)
&#231;
&ccedil;
ç
Small c, cedilla
&#232;
&egrave;
è
Small e, grave accent
&#233;
&eacute;
é
Small e, acute accent
&#234;
&ecirc;
ê
Small e, circumflex accent
&#235;
&euml;
ë
Small e, dieresis or umlaut mark
&#236;
&igrave;
ì
Small i, grave accent
&#237;
&iacute;
í
Small i, acute accent
&#238;
&icirc;
î
Small i, circumflex accent
&#239;
&iuml;
ï
Small i, dieresis or umlaut mark
&#240;
&eth;
ð
Small eth, Icelandic
&#241;
&ntilde;
ñ
Small n, tilde
&#242;
&ograve;
ò
Small o, grave accent
&#243;
&oacute;
ó
Small o, acute accent
&#244;
&ocirc;
ô
Small o, circumflex accent
&#245;
&otilde;
õ
Small o, tilde
&#246;
&ouml;
ö
Small o, dieresis or umlaut mark
&#247;
&divide;
÷
Division sign
&#248;
&oslash;
ø
Small o, slash
&#249;
&ugrave;
ù
Small u, grave accent
&#250;
&uacute;
ú
Small u, acute accent
&#251;
&ucirc;
û
Small u, circumflex accent
&#252;
&uuml;
ü
Small u, dieresis or umlaut mark
&#253;
&yacute;
ý
Small y, acute accent
&#254;
&thorn;
þ
Small thorn, Icelandic
&#255;
&yuml;
ÿ
Small y, dieresis or umlaut mark